Size and physiological effort in the production of signed and spoken utterances
Proceedings of Fonetik 2001, the XIVth Swedish Phonetics Conference, Örenäs, May 30 - June 1, 2001. Working Papers, Department of Linguistics, Lund University 49: 164-167.
It is shown that the energy required in order to articulate manual and oral gestures at a given rate varies in proportion with the fifth power of linear body size, while the energy supply varies with its second power. This provides for a better understanding of the differences in peripheralness observed in the formant frequencies of vowels in speech articulated more or less forcefully by men, women and children.