Pukapukan
Language facts sheet by Niklas Jonsson
©1997-1999 POLLI & Niklas Jonsson

A bibliography of works refered to in this file may be found in the Polynesian Literature List.


Country/territory where spoken
Cook Islands

Geographical region
Pukapuka Island in northern Cook Islands.

Language codes
PUK (POLLI); PKP (Grimes 1996: Ethnologue); PUK (Biggs 1971)

Alternate language names
Puka Puka, Bukabukan, Buka Buka

Genetic affiliation
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, Eastern Fiji-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Samoic- Outlier, Pukapukan

Pukapukan speaking population
786 in Cook Islands (1979), of which most on Pukapuka and some on Rarotonga; some in New Zealand; 786 total or more.

Subsistence type
Fishermen, agriculturalists, copra

Status of language
Needs survey

Alphabet
A, E, I, O, U, NG, K, L, M, N, P, R, T, V, W, Y (Stanley 1989) - may be incomplete/incorrect. Biggs (1971) lists no R and Y for Pukapukan and claims that Proto-Polynesian S became a voiceless dental fricative followed by a semivowel: THY. Biggs' THY may be equal to Stanley's Y in the village name "Yato".

Word order typology
VSO, VOS

Remarks
Unwritten. Pukapukan is not intelligible with Rarotongan. It is more closely related to Samoan.

Data last updated
17 December 1998



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY - PUKAPUKAN

BEAGLEHOLE, ERNEST/BEAGLEHOLE, PEARL.
1938. Myths, stories and chants of Pukapuka (typescript). Honolulu. Bernice P. Bishop Museum

BEAGLEHOLE, ERNEST/BEAGLEHOLE, PEARL.
1938. Ethnology of Pukapuka (in: Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin, no 150). Honolulu. Bernice P. Bishop Museum

BEAGLEHOLE, ERNEST/BEAGLEHOLE, PEARL.
1991. Pukapukan dictionary manuscript. Auckland. University of Aukland

HECHT, JULIA.
1979. The culture of gender in Pukapuka: male, female and the mayakitanga 'sacred maid' (in: Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol 86, pp183-206). Wellington. The Polynesian Society

MATAOLA, TUKIA/ET AL.
1981. Pukapuka-English dictionary: A preliminary edition (manuscript). Pukapuka

MOEKA'A, RANGI.
1967. A Pukapukan vocabulary (typescript)

SALISBURY, MARY.
Date not known. Puka Puka Syntax

SALISBURY, MARY.
1991. Pukapukan Mako: a linguistic approach to musical analysis (unpublished paper presented at the 6th International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics, Honolulu)

SALISBURY, MARY (editor).
1991. Myths, stories and chants from Pukapuka, by Ernest and Pearl Beaglehole (unpublished typescript, University of Auckland)



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