West Futunan
Language facts sheet by Niklas Jonsson
©1997-2001 POLLI & Niklas Jonsson

A bibliography of works refered to in this file may be found in the Polynesian Literature List.


Country/territory where spoken
Vanuatu

Geographical region
Futuna and Aniwa Islands east of Tanna.

Language codes
WFU (POLLI); FUT (Grimes 1996: Ethnologue); WFU (Biggs 1971)

Alternate language names
Futuna-Aniwa, West Futuna-Aniwa, Erronan

Genetic affiliation
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, Eastern Fiji-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear Polynesian, Samoic- Outlier, Futunic

Dialect names
Futuna (Fotuna), Aniwa (Anewa)

West Futunan speaking population
600 (Wurm/Hattori 1981); 600 total.

Subsistence type
Fishermen; agriculturalists: taro, yam, sweet potato, coconut, fig, breadfruit, banana, native cabbage, sugar cane, chestnut, arrowroot; livestock: pigs, poultry

Alphabet
A, I, U, F, NG, K, M, N, P, R, S, T, V (Biggs 1971) - may be incomplete. Speakers on Aniwa tend to pronounce F as H before round vowels (Biggs 1971). Unlike words in most other Polynesian languages West Futunan words and syllables may end in a consonant sound due to loss of weakly stressed vowel sounds (Biggs 1971). In order to keep the symmetry in the distribution of phonemes it may be suggested that such vowels be included in ortography.

Remarks
There are significant differences between the Futuna and Aniwa dialects.

Data last updated
2 July 2001



SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY - WEST FUTUNAN

CAPELL, ARTHUR.
1931. Some curiosities of Polynesian possessives (includes information about West Futunan) (in: Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol 40, p 141-50)

CAPELL, ARTHUR.
1958. The culture and language of Futuna and Aniwa, New Hebrides

CAPELL, ARTHUR.
1960. Anthropology and linguistics of Futuna-Aniwa, New Hebrides (in series: Oceania Linguistic Monographs, no 5)

CAPELL, ARTHUR.
1984. Futuna-Aniwa dictionary (in series: Pacific linguistics C, no 56)

DOUGHERTY, J.
1983. West Futuna-Aniwa: an introduction to a Polynesian outlier language . Berkeley. University of California Press

GRAY, W.
1894. Four Aniwan Songs (Includes vocabulary) (in: Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol 3, p 93-7). Wellington. The Polynesian Society

GRAY, W.
1894. Aniwan Folklore (includes vocabulary) (in: Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol 3, p 162-4). Wellington. The Polynesian Society

SORE, MAROI.
1894. A song of Aniwa (includes vocabulary) (in: Journal of the Polynesian Society, vol 3, p 41-5). Wellington. The Polynesian Society

RAY, SIDNEY H.
1888. Sketch of Aniwa grammar (in: Journal of the Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, vol 17, p 282-9)

[TRAD.].
1898. New Testament

[TRAD.].
1869-1923. Portions of the Bible



PREVIOUS / NEXT LANGUAGE
(alphabetically)

POLLInet HOME